As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900.
The Little Ice Age ended.
Napoleon , conquers much of Europe, is ultimately defeated 1815 ; some old European regimes are restored, others not.
The Libertadores lead most of Latin America to independence.
Industrial Revolution continues and spreads, developments include the Rail Transport, telegraph, and telephone.
Belgium becomes independant in 1830 after a massive uprising against the Dutch. Leopold becomes the first king of Belgium.
Belgium will be the second industrial power in the world by the middle of the 19th century.
Leopold II, son of Leopold, becomes the second king of Belgium. He buys the gigantic territory of Congo in Africa with his own fortune and will later (1908) offer it to Belgium.
Discovery of the relationships between magnetism and electricity and light by Hans Christian Řrsted and James Clerk Maxwell. (See:electromagnetism)
Mass migration from Europe to the United States.
During the reign of Queen Victoria, the United Kingdom experiences the Victorian Age, which is the age in which the United Kingdom is the leading economic power in the world.
Political revolution and constitutional reform across Europe severely limits powers of monarchs, advances democracy.
The religious revival of the Second Great Awakening in the eastern United States and Canada gives rise to unique, American, Christian religions during the era of Restorationism
Gold discovered in Australia and throughout the west of the United States, leading to huge increases in national wealth and encouraging mass migration of free settlers there.
Slavery ended in British colonies and in America. See American Civil War. End of global slave trade enforced by British navy.
Charles Darwin revolutionizes biology with his theories of evolution, 1858.
Europeans conquer and colonize most of Africa and parts of Asia.
Karl Marx writes the Communist Manifesto, encouraging workers to revolt against owners.
Meiji Restoration in 1868 opens Japan to modern influences and returns the emperor to power.
Germany and Italy are formed as nations.
Railroads make fast mass transit available to many. Transcontinental railroads built, including the Panama Railway in 1855, the US Transcontinental Railroad finished in 1869 linking east to west in the United States, and the Canadian National Railway in 1885.
The electric telegraph and undersea cables make instant global communication possible for the first time.
Postage Stamps introduced in Great Britain and soon thereafter, in many other countries.
Manufactured goods become widely available by mail order
Alexander II of Russia, Tsar
Empress Dowager Cixi of China
Abraham Lincoln, US president
Queen Victoria, monarch of the British Empire
Napoleon Bonaparte, French emperor
Napoleon III, French Emperor
Louis Pasteur, biologist
Charles Darwin, biologist
Thomas Alva Edison, inventor
Gottlob Frege, mathematician, logician and philosopher
Ludwig van Beethoven, composer
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, poet, critic, thinker
Charles Dickens, author
Benjamin Disraeli, novelist and politician
Antonio de La Gandara, painter
Victor Hugo, author
Edgar Allan Poe, author
Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens), author
Joseph Smith, Jr, religious leader, founder of Mormonism
Brigham Young, Morman religious leader
Otto von Bismarck, German politician
Simón Bolívar South American Liberator
Giuseppe Garibaldi, unifier of Italy
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, author, thinker
Karl Marx, political philosopher and economist
William Morris, social reformer
Friedrich Nietzsche, philosopher
José de San Martín, South American Liberator
Dr. John Snow, the founder of epidemiology
Decades and Years
Note: years before or after the 19th century are in italics.