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Conventional Egyptian chronologyThis is a conventional chronology of the rulers of ancient Egypt, taking into account well accepted developments during the 20th century but not including any of the major revision proposals that have also been made in that time. See also Revised Chronology, Egyptian chronology, Pharaoh.
Even within a single work, often archeologists will offer several possible dates or even several whole chronologies as possibilities. Consequently, there may be discrepancies between dates shown here and in articles on particular rulers. Often there are also several possible spellings of the names.
Predynastic Egypt is from Late Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt.
The dates of Dynasties 1 to 10 are from Baines and Malek, Atlas of Ancient Egypt (Oxford, 1980).
The dates of Dynasties 11 to 20 are from Kitchen, "The Basics of Egyptian Chronology in Relation to the Bronze Age", in Astrom (ed) High, Middle or Low (Gothengurg, 1987), taking his low chronology.
The dates of Dynasties 21 to 26 are from Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1973, Warminster).
(This information has been supplemented from The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw (Oxford, 2000), and Digital Egypt for Universities, which was developed by The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology.)
It should be noted that there is a 60 year discrepancy between the dates proposed by these two authors. There is no attempt to remove this in the combined chronology presented below, which is the “Conventional Chronology” that is quoted by David Rohl in A Test of Time (1995, Century).
All dates are BC
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