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In thermodynamics, enthalpy (denoted by the capital letter H)is a concept closely related to that of internal energy. As with internal energy, the total enthalpy of a system cannot be measured directly, so thermodynamicists always speak of the enthalpy change of a system. Like energy, enthalpy is a state function.
Enthalpy is defined by the following expression:
For an exothermic reaction, the system's change in enthalpy is equal to the energy released in the reaction, including the energy retained in the system and that lost through expansion against the surroundings. Similarly, for an endothermic reaction, the system's change in enthalpy is equal to the energy absorbed in the reaction, including the energy lost by the system and that gained through expansion against the surroundings.
The standard enthalpy change (denoted H0 or H
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