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## James Clerk Maxwell
Algebraic mathematics with elements of geometry are a feature of much of Maxwell's work. Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic forces are two complementary aspects of electromagnetism. He showed that electric and magnetic fields travel through space, in the form of waves, at a constant velocity of 3.0 × 10
The scientific compound derived CGS unit measuring magnetic flux (commonly abbreviated as
## Biography## Early yearsMaxwell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, at 14 India Street. He was the only child of Edinburgh lawyer John Clerk. The house was in Edinburgh's Georgian area built after the Napoleonic Wars. The family name Maxwell was adopted by the terms of a legal requirement made upon his father to inherit an estate. The family afterwards moved to an estate at Glenlair (near Dumfries). Maxwell's early education was given by his Christian mother and included studying the Bible. Maxwell then went to Edinburgh Academy in his youth. Maxwell's school nickname was 'Dafty'. At Edinburgh Academy, Maxwell met Peter Tait. In 1845, at the age of 15, Maxwell wrote a paper describing mechanical means of drawing mathematical curves with a piece of string, which Professor J. D. Forbes communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. ## Middle years
In 1847, Maxwell attended Edinburgh University studing Natural Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, and Mental Philosophy. At Edinburgh, he studied under Sir William Hamilton. In his eighteenth year, while still a student in Edinburgh, he contributed two valuable papers to the Transactions of the same society—one of which, “
In 1854, Maxwell graduated with a degree as second wrangler in mathematics from Trinity College, Cambridge (scoring second-highest in the mathematics exam) and was declared equal with the senior wrangler of his year in the higher ordeal of the Smith’s prize examination. For more than half of his brief life he held a prominent position in the very foremost rank of natural philosophers. Immediately after taking his degree, he read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society a novel memoir, “
From 1855 to 1872, he published at intervals a series of valuable investigations connected with the “
He obtained in 1859 the Adams prize in Cambridge for an original and powerful essay, “ In 1860, he was a professor at King's College in London. In 1861, Maxwell was elected to the Royal Society. Maxwell researched elastic solids and pure geometry during this time, also. ## Kinetic theoryIn 1865, Maxwell moved to the estate he inherited from his father in Glenlair, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. In 1868 he resigned his Chair of Physics and Astronomy at King’s College, London. In 1866, he statistically formulated, independent of Ludwig Boltzmann, the Maxwell-Boltzmann kinetic theory of gases. In the kinetic theory, temperatures and heat involve only molecular movement. This approach generalized the previous laws of thermodynamics, explaining the observations and experiments in a better way. Maxwell's work on thermodynamics led him to develop the thought experiment, Maxwell's demon. ## ElectromagnetismThe great work of Maxwell's life was devoted to electricity. Maxwell's most important contribution was the extension and mathematical formulation of earlier work on electricity and magnetism by Michael Faraday, André-Marie Ampère, and others into a linked set of twenty differential equations in quaternions. Between 1864 and 1873, Maxwell conducted research and demonstrated that the equations could express the behavior of electromagnetic fields and their interrelated nature. Maxwell began by reading, with the most profound admiration and attention, the whole of Faraday’s extraordinary self-revelations, and proceeded to translate the ideas of that master into the succinct and expressive notation of the mathematician. The equations allow for the existence of a self-propagating electromagnetic wave which has the same velocity as that of light, suggesting that light is in fact that electromagnetic wave. The theory demonstrated that the oscillating electric charge produces a magnetic field. Maxwell's great object, as it was also the great object of Faraday, was to overturn the idea of action at a distance. This was the first hint that there are at least two perfectly distinct methods of arriving at the known formulae of static electricity. The step to magnetic phenomena was comparatively simple; but it was otherwise as regards electromagnetic phenomena, where current electricity is essentially involved. The first paper of Maxwell’s in which an attempt at an admissible physical theory of electromagnetism was made was communicated to the Royal Society in 1867. But the theory, in a fully developed form, first appeared in 1873 in his great treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Availing himself of the admirable generalized co-ordinate system of Lagrange, Maxwell showed how to reduce all electric and magnetic phenomena to stresses and motions of a material medium, and, as one preliminary, but excessively severe, test of the truth of his theory, he pointed out that (if the electromagnetic medium be that which is required for the explanation of the phenomena of light) the velocity of light in vacuo should be numerically the same as the ratio of the electromagnetic and electrostatic units. In fact, the means of the best determinations of each of these quantities separately agree with one another more closely than do the various values of either. Maxwell used the concept of the aether to explain electromagnetic radiation. The validity of the self-propagating electromagnetic wave suggestion was later demonstrated in experiments by Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, and was fundamental to the invention of radio. Ludwig Boltzmann helped present the Maxwell equation to the general population in his lectures on Maxwell's theory. A similar mathematical system was used later by Einstein for the theory of relativity. Relativity and Maxwell's theory have many similarities, and it can be said that Maxwell's formulation of electromagnetism was a precursor of the theory of relativity. Heaviside reduced the complexity of the theory down to four differential equations, known now collectively as Maxwell's Laws or Maxwell's equations. Maxwell's Laws describe the nature of static and moving electric and magnetic charges, and the relationship between the two, namely electromagnetic induction. ## Later years and afterwards
Maxwell also made contributions to the area of optics and colour vision, being credited with the discovery that colour photographs could be formed using red, green, and blue filters. He had the photographer Thomas Sutton photograph a tartan ribbon three times, each time with a different colour filter over the lens. The three images were developed and then projected onto a screen with three different projectors, each equipped with the same colour filter used to take its image. When brought into register, the three images formed a full colour image. Maxwell's work on colour blindness allowed him to win the Rumford Medal by the Royal Society of London. He wrote an admirable textbook of the " In 1871, he was the first Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge. Maxwell supervised the development of the Cavendish laboratory. He superintended every step of the progress of the building and of the purchase of the very valuable collection of apparatus with which it was equipped at the expense of its munificent founder, the seventh duke of Devonshire (chancellor of the university, and one of its most distinguished alumni). One of Maxwell’s last great contributions to science was the editing (with copious original notes) of the Electrical Researches of Henry Cavendish, from which it appeared that Cavendish researched such questions as the mean density of the earth and the composition of water, among other things. On November 5, 1879, Maxwell died of abdominal cancer.
The extended biography " ## Quotes- "[Electromagnetism] velocity is nearly that of light ... have strong reason to conclude that light in such a way itself (including radiant heat, and other radiation if any) is an electromagnetic disturbance propagated through the electromagnetic field according to waves into the form of electromagnetic laws." — James Maxwell
- Arriving at Cambridge University and told there would be a compulsory 6 a.m. church service, he stroked his beard thoughtfully, and slowly pronounced, in a thick Scots Brogue, "Aye, I suppose I could stay up that late."
- "The special theory of relativity owes its origins to Maxwell's equations of the electromagnetic field" — Albert Einstein
- "He achieved greatness unequalled." — Max Planck
- "From a long view of the history of mankind - seen from, say, ten thousand years from now - there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics" — Richard Feynman
- "Maxwell's importance in the history of scientific thought is comparable to Einstein's (whom he inspired) and to Newton's (whose influence he curtailed)" — Ivan Tolstoy (Biographer)
## Publications
- Maxwell, James Clerk, "
*On the Description of Oval Curves, and those having a plurality of Foci*". Proceedure of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. ii. 1846. - Maxwell, James Clerk, "
*Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases*". 1860. - Maxwell, James Clerk, "
*On Physical Lines of Force*". 1861. - Maxwell, James Clerk, "
*On a Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field*". 1865. - Maxwell, James Clerk, "
*Theory of Heat*". 1871. - Maxwell, James Clerk, "
*A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism*". Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1873. - Maxwell, James Clerk, "
*Molecules*". Nature, September, 1873.
See also: Maxwell's demon, Maxwell's equations, Maxwell's theorem (a theorem in probability theory), Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, Physics
## Links, Resources, and References- Campbell, Lewis, "
*The Life of James Clerk Maxwell*". 1882. [Digital Preservation] - Maxwell, James Clerk, "
*A Treatise on Electricity & Magnetism*". Dover Publications, New York. 1873. ISBN 0-486-60636-8 (Vol. 1) ISBN 0-486-60637-6 (Vol. 2) - Wolfram Research's Maxwell
- MacTutor's Maxwell
- Victorian Web's Maxwell
- Maxwell and the Christian Proposition
- 1911
*Britannica Maxwell*
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