List of fruits

Here are lists of all the fruits considered edible in some cuisine. Note that many true fruits are considered to be vegetables in the culinary sense (for example, the tomato), and hence do not appear in this article. There exist also many fruits that are edible but for various reasons have not become popular.

Table of contents
1 Temperate fruits
2 Mediterranean and subtropical fruits
3 Tropical fruits
4 Nonedible fruit

Temperate fruits

Fruits of temperate climates are almost universally borne on trees or woody shrubs or lianas. They will not grow adequately in the tropics, as they need a period of cold (a chilling requirement) each year before they will flower. The apple, pear, cherry, and plum are the most widely grown and eaten, owing to their adaptability. Many other fruits are important regionally but do not figure prominently in commerce. Many sorts of small fruit on this list are gathered from the wild, just as they were in Neolithic times.

The Family Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. The pome fruits, stone fruits, brambles, and strawberry are all members of Rosaceae.

The pome fruits:

  • Apple and crabapple (Malus pumila)
  • Chokeberry (Aronia spp.)
  • Haw, the fruit of the hawthorn
  • Juneberry or saskatoon
  • Medlar
  • Pear, European and Asian species (Pyrus communis)
  • Quince (genus Cydonia)
  • Rowan or mountain ash
  • Sorb or sorb apple, the fruit of the service tree

The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus:

  • Apricot
  • Cherry, sweet, sour, and wild species (Prunus avium)
  • Plum, of which there are several domestic and wild species; dried plums are called prunes
  • Peach and its variant the nectarine (Prunus persica)
  • Hybrids of the preceding species, such as the pluot

In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rubus, are some of the most popular pseudo-berries:

The true berries are dominated by the family Ericaceae, many of which are hardy in the subarctic:

Other berries (not in Ericaceae):

  • Barberry
  • Currant (Ribes spp.), red, black, and white types
  • Elderberry
  • Gooseberry
  • Honeysuckle: the berries of some species (called honeyberries) are edible, others are poisonous
  • Nannyberry or sheepberry (Viburnum spp.)
  • Seaberry or sea buckthorn

Some fruits native to Asia that were not common elsewhere until the 20th century:

Some tree fruits native to North America that are eaten in a small way:

  • Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argenta), which grows wild in the prairies of Canada
  • Chokeberry (Aronia spp.)
  • Juneberry or saskatoon, which is cultivated in Canada
  • Pawpaw
  • Persimmon, Diospyros virginiana

Several cacti yield edible fruits, which are important traditional foods for some Native American peoples:

Some exceptions to the statement that temperate fruits grow on woody perennials are:

The false fruits are not botanically fruits at all but are used as fruits in the kitchen:

Mediterranean and subtropical fruits

Fruits in this category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and may have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the
Mediterranean:

In the important genus Citrus some members are tropical, tolerating no frost. All common species of commerce are somewhat hardy:

Other subtropical fruits:

Tropical fruits

Tropical fruit grow on plants of all habits. The only characteristic that they share is an intolerance of frost.

  • Akee (Blighia sapida))
  • Banana and its starchy variant the plantain (Musacea spp.)
  • Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)
  • CamuCamu (Myrciaria dubia))
  • Carambola (Averrhoa carambola), also called star fruit
  • Cempedak (Artocarpus champeden)
  • Custard apple (Annona cherimola), also called cherimoya
  • Coconut (Cocos spp.)
  • Durian (Durio zibethinus)
  • Guarana (Paullinia cupana))
  • Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also called nangka
  • Langsat (Lansium domesticum), also called longkong or duku
  • Mamoncillo (Melicoccus bijugatus), also known as the quenepa or genip
  • Mango (Mangifera indica)
  • Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)
  • Papaya (Carica papaya)
  • Pineapple (Ananas comosus)
  • Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)
  • Rose apple (Syzygium aquem), also called Malay apple
  • Salak (Salacca edulis), also called snakefruit
  • Sapodilla (Achras/Manilkara zapota), also called chiku
  • Soursop (Annona muricata)
  • Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)

Nonedible fruit

See also




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