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## Quantum electrodynamics
QED was the first quantum field theory in which the difficulties of building a consistent, fully quantum description of fields and creation and annihilation of quantum particles were satisfactorily resolved. Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger, and Richard Feynman received the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for its development. Pure QED in 4 dimensions with n particles is reserved for the quantum field theory with the Lagrangian
where is the covariant derivative and is the coupling strength. See sign convention. See also Gauge theory, Functional integral. ## Literature
R. P. Feynman, | |||||

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