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## Reciprocal System of TheoryTheReciprocal System of Theory (RST) is held by advocates to be a theoretical framework capable of comprehensively explaining all physical phenomena from subatomic particles to galactic clusters. The framework, based on the work of Dewey B. Larson, an American engineer and author, was originally described in his book The Structure of the Physical Universe in 1959 and has more recently been published in three revised and enlarged volumes. The ideas are promoted by the members of 'The International Society of Unified Science, Inc.' (ISUS) whose only stated objective is to "advance in all ways deemed feasible the Reciprocal System of physical theory as proposed by Dewey B. Larson".
The RST and the work of Larson assumes that the basic constituent of the universe is motion (i.e. space & time), not matter. Thus, it is a unique approach in the science of physics. However, so far, it has remained essentially unknown or ignored in the mainstream physics community, since it is completely at odds with current theories such as relativity, quantum mechanics and the Big Bang and many other modern theories. Although it is generally dismissed by those physicists who are aware of it, proponents claim that it rests on solid philosophical grounds, and that it is the first general theory of physics ever developed. Unlike conventional theory, they point out, the RST has no empirical content, but rather all its conclusions are based **1) The physical universe is composed entirely of one component, motion, existing in three dimensions, in discrete units, and with two reciprocal aspects, space and time.****2) The physical universe conforms to the relations of ordinary commutative mathematics, its magnitudes are absolute and its geometry is Euclidean.**
Larson further concludes from the first postulate that, since the postulated three-dimensionional motion is assumed to exist in discrete units, the dimensions of motion are therefore independent. This means that independent two-dimensional and one-dimensional motion are also possible. In fact, in the due course of the theory's development, Larson shows that quantities of one-dimensional motion correspond to electric potential, quantities of two-dimensional motion correspond to magnetic potential, and quantities of three-dimensional motion correspond to gravitational potential. Larson argues that this is the basis for explaining many otherwise unexplainable electrical and magnetic phenomena such as induction (in general, 2D motion (magnetic motion) cancels a portion of 3D motion (matter) leaving a 1D motion residue (electric motion), or, alternately, 1D motion (electric motion) cancels a portion of 3D motion (matter) leaving a 2D motion residue (magnetic motion)).
Of course, this theoretical approach of a universe consisting of nothing but motion (space and time) constitutes a completely new paradigm that departs radically from the current paradigm of a universe consisting of matter
For instance, the RST concludes unequivocally that gravitational radiation, a requirement of general relativity, cannot exist, and that gravity operates without any medium or continuum such as the four-dimensional (4D), curved-space of relativity, or any process of transmission between gravitating bodies. Although this is in accord with current observations, it is at odds with existing indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational radiation, from binary neutron star measurements. While General relativity (GR) predicts that, due to gravitational radiation, the orbit of such systems will decay at a specific rate, the RST attributes the force of gravity to the inherent 3D inward motion of the mass of gravitating bodies. In this way the same motion that constitutes the mass of a body also produces the force of gravity associated with that mass. No energy transmission process is involved in this phenomenon, and, thus, no orbital decay should result from its operation.
However, an orbital decay
Meanwhile, RST proponents claim that the theory is also consistent with recent observations that the geometry of the universe is flat (from the CMB data), and that the cosmological parameter, Omega, is precisely equal to one. These data are in conflict with traditional big bang cosmology, where Euclidean geometry would appear to be highly unlikely. While the theory of cosmic inflation is the method accepted by most physicists for overcoming this apparent contradiction, the fact that such
The most embarrassing example of this predicament, advocates say, is the consternation caused by the recent discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe. The observed acceleration is thought to be produced by a gravity-like repulsive force. Some think that this force, dubbed "dark energy," by Michael Turner of the University of Chicago, might be vacuum energy, represented by the "cosmological constant" (λ) in general relativity or possibly something called "Quintessence." Quintessence (φ) is a hypothetical "scalar field" that cosmologists can use to explain the values of certain cosmological parameters such as the flat geometry of the universe and its current proportions of energy and matter. However, the problem is that the use of scalar fields, a wide spread practice in the construction of modern physical theory based on quantum physics, exacerbates the growing conflict between quantum physics and general relativity. This happens because, if scalar fields, such as φ are coupled to gravity in the equations of general relativity, they cause what physicists call violations of "energy conditions." Indeed, Carlos Barcelo, of the University of Portsmouth's Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation in Great Britain, has concluded that, because of these violations of the energy conditions, caused in general by the coupling of scalar fields to gravity, "the conflict between quantum physics and gravity is now becoming acute," and he suggests that physicists "banish scalar fields from [their] theories" altogether, as the simplest solution to the problem, though he admits that it would not be the easiest way out due to the crucial role scalar fields play in many important physical theories today. In contrast to the turmoil that the evidence of dark energy has induced in the state of affairs in mainstream physics, a similar outward, gravity-like motion has always been an integral part of the RST from the beginning, and is a major component in the RST's calculations and explanations of both the large-scale structure of the universe and its atomic and molecular scale structure. It plays a fundamental role in the RST's explanation of the recession of galaxies, star formation, galaxy formation and the explosions of stars, without the need for scalar fields, the big bang, cosmic inflation, or black holes.
Of course, the RST is not necessary to explain this outward motion--Einstein himself proposed the expedient of inserting the cosmological constant into his equations soon after he proposed the theory of relativity, and mainstream scientists, with new
Other examples of unusual and unorthodox theoretical conclusions reached in the RST include the derivation of a non-nuclear model of the atom in
On the other hand, in
- s
_{o}= 2.914 ln t angstroms
_{o} is the center-to-center distance in angstrom units and t is the specific motions of the elements. Where these two specific motions are equal, only 1 of them enters into the calculation. However, if they are unequal, a single value is obtained by squaring the first and taking the cube root of its product with the second:
- t = (t
^{2}t)^{1/3}
- s
_{o}= 2.914 * ln t = 2.914 * ln 3 = 2.914 * 1.098612 = 3.201355 angstroms
However, in many cases Larson must modify the equations to be used, changing them from species to species on grounds difficult for non-initiates to easily follow without further study. For example, Larson lists characteristic values for the various species which are specific to the RST, such as "specific electric rotation". Because the basis for the procedure for calculating these values is explained in an earlier volume of the work, it is necessary to devote a great deal of time to the study of the RST to rule out the allegation that they were selected arbitrarily to make the predictions fit the data. Nevertheless, it's interesting to note that Larson's calculations of the values shown above, except for Neon, are closer to the accepted values today than when he published them in the early 1980s.
According to its proponents, the RST can also be used to solve the famous problem of the precession of the perihelion of the planet Mercury. This problem was first solved using Einstein's equations of general relativity, which assumes relative values of space-time in the equations of motion, as opposed to Newton's assumption that space and time should be treated as absolute concepts in the equations of motion. Larson, in the RST, also assumes absolute values of space and time, but goes beyond Newton in the definition of these crucial concepts. Using these definitions, K.V.K. Nehru produced a paper describing the orbital motion of high-speed planets. The result he found from the RST was precisely the same as that from relativity. Hence, like general relativity, the RST is fully in agreement with accurate measurements of Mercury's orbit.
**See also:**List of speculative or fringe theories
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