Surgery is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. Its practitioners are referred to as surgeons.
History of surgery
Although surgeons are now considered to be specialised physicians, the profession of surgeon and that of physician have different historical roots. For example, the Hippocratic Oath warns physicians against practicing surgery (in particular surgery to relieve kidney stones), which was to be left to specialized craftsmen.
- mention ancient surgery: trepanning etc.
Among the first surgeons were battlefield doctors in the Napoleonic Wars who were primarily concerned with amputation. Naval surgeons were often barber-surgeons, who combined surgery with their main jobs as barbers.
In London an operating theatre or emergency room from the day before modern anaesthesia or antiseptic surgery still exists and is open to the public. It is found in the roof space of St Thomas Church, Southwark, London and is called the Old Operating Theatre.
Development of modern surgery
- to be written
- mention Ambrose Pare
Common surgical procedures
Of the eight most common surgical procedures in the US, four are obstetric: episiotomy, repair of obstetric laceration, cesarean section, and artificial rupture of the amniotic membrane.
According to 1996 data from the US National Center for Health Statistics, 40.3 million inpatient surgical procedures were performed in the United States in 1996, followed closely by 31.5 million outpatient surgeries.
- WikiMed, substantial German wiki about surgery
A surgery can be a place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian.
In British English, a surgery is a regular time scheduled by a Member of Parliament to meet with her constituents and discuss their concerns.