Timeline of Slovene history

This is a timeline of key events in the history of Slovenia and the nations that lived and live on Slovene ethnic territory, mostly Slovenes. 1

History, unlike mathematics, is an imperfect science and can never be complete or totally impartial. (... like mathematics ...) [Ivan Kobal]

Table of contents
1 1300s BC
2 1200s BC
3 1100s BC
4 700s BC
5 300s BC
6 100s BC
7 0s
8 100s
9 200s
10 300s
11 400s
12 500s
13 600s
14 700s
15 800s
16 900s
17 1000s
18 1200s
19 1300s
20 1400s
21 1500s
22 1600s
23 1700s
24 1800s
25 1810s
26 1830s
27 1840s
28 1850s
29 1860s
30 1880s
31 1890s
32 1900s
33 1910s
34 1920s
35 1930s
36 1940s
37 1950s
38 1960s
39 1970s
40 1980s
41 1990s
42 2000s
43 External links

1300s BC

NOTE a theory about connections between the Veneti and Proto-Slovenes is believed to be speculative. This page won't discuss much of it, but it is at least worth mentioning it.

The neutrality of this page is disputed. See discussion here

  • Circa 1300 BC - The Veneti (Venedes) ('Venetkeni', 'Venetkini', 'Venedi', 'Vinedi', 'Vendi', (Jordanes 'Venethi'), 'Sclavi', 'Sclavini', (Jordanes 'Sclaveni'), 'Slovonici') (Greek Venedes, Homer shortened the name to 'Enetoi', Jordanes wrote 'Ainetoi' ("Laudable")) | (also Wenets, Veneds, Venets, Wenetes) (not to be confused with Venetians or Venicians), the Proto-Slavs (Proto-Slovenes, Slo-veneti), an Aryan folk from Sorbian (Lusatian (Lusation), Wendish) culture along the Amber's path conquer and settle region between the Baltic and Adriatic Sea.

1200s BC

1100s BC

  • Circa 1150 BC - The Veneti from Paflagonia, a region in today's northern Turkey on the Black Sea, continued East across Persia and Afghanistan after the defeat of Troy reach Punjab across the Khyber mountain pass (1022 m). 2Z Homer talks about the Venets, and so do the Greeks, using the name Henetoi. Roman historians claim their leader was Antenor (Antenore), originated from Troy.
  • 1100 BC - The new combined nation, known until today by the name of Aryans or Hindi, was able to penetrate towards East to the river valley of the Ganges and conquered the whole area up to the Himalayas. A new vast country came into existence, which still today carries the name Hindustran (like Heneti - Veneti). India - actually Vindia - was born.

700s BC

300s BC

100s BC

0s

100s

200s

  • Circa 290 - Noricum is divided under Roman Emperor Diocletian (245-313, reigned 284-305) into Noricum ripense (along the Danube) and mediterranean (the southern mountainous district).

300s

400s

500s

  • Circa 500/550 to 570/592 - The ancestors of Slovenes settle in Eastern Alps (Julian Alps, Karavanke), occupying an area more than twice the size of today's Slovenia.
  • Circa 551 - An Ostrogothic historian Jordanes writes in The origin and deeds of the Goths 3 about 3 nations 'Veneti' ('Venethi'), 'Sklavens' ('Sclaveni', 'Slevene' ?) and probably the east (or south Slavs), the bravest nation among them called Antes (Greek Antae, Russian/Ukrainian Anty, Slovene Anti). All his three terms might also be just synonyms for one nation. Jordanes actually states that Venethi are divided into three groups: Venets, Ants and Sklavens.
  • 568 - The Langobards from the margin of Pannonia break and move into Italy. The independent Slovene state appears in the Eastern Alpine area (provincia Sclaborum), latter named in sources as Sclauinia or Karantania.
  • 595 - The first mentioning of a Karantania state in muniments. One of them is in History of Langobards of Lombard chronicler Paul Diacon (Other sources 620s). 2X

600s

  • 612 - John Babbiensis in the biography of St. Columbus specifically names Slovenes as Veneti.
  • 623 - The formation of the Karantanian King Samo's state.
  • 626 - Uprising of the 'west' Slavs led by Samo against Avars.
  • 631 - The Battle of Wogastisburg (probably Forchheim) between Samo's army and Austrasian forces, led by Merovingian king Dagobert I of the Franks (603-639, reigned 629-639).
  • 658 - Samo's death. The Slav tribal union collapses but a smaller Karantania persists.

700s

  • 745 - Karantania loses its independence and becomes a margraviate and tantamount part of the semifeudal Frankish empire later under the rule of king Charlemagne (742-814, reigned 771-814) due to pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east.

800s

900s

1000s

1200s

  • 1220 - Ljubljana receives its town rights.
  • 1269 - The Karantanian dynasty becomes extinct.
  • 1273 October 24 - Habsburg count Rudolph I (1218-1291) is crowned in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) as a German king.
  • 1274 - Bohemian king Ottokar II. (reigned as a king 1253-1278) a candidate for the German throne refuses to appear or to restore the provinces of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola which he had seized. The way he got named provinces they believed was contentious.
  • 1278 August 26 - The battle of the river March near Dürnkrut in Moravia between Ottokar II. and Rudolph I. allianced with a Hungarian king Ladislaus IV. Ottokar is defeated and killed.
  • 1282 - The rule of Habsburg dukes over most Slovene lands begins.

1300s

  • 1335 - The Duchy of Carinthia is bestowed by Louis the Bavarian on the dukes of Austria.

1400s

  • 1414 - The Habsburg Duke Ernest the Iron thrones according to the ancient Karantanian ritual of installing dukes on the Duke's Stone and he addresses again as an archduke.
  • 1451 April 11 - Celje acquires town rights by orders from Celje count Frederic II (Friderik II).
  • 1461 - Ljubljana becomes the seat of the diocese.
  • 1473 - The city walls and defensive moat are build in Celje.

1500s

  • 1511 - Ljubljana is devastated by earthquake.
  • 1550 - The first book in Slovene is printed. Primož Trubar's primer entitled Abecedarium and a catechism.
  • 1584 - The Bible is translated into Slovene by Jurij Dalmatin.

1600s

1700s

  • 1701 - The Philharmonic Society (Academia philharmonicorum) is established in Ljubljana.

1800s

  • 1809 - The Lower Carinthia incorporates to France as Dutchy of Carinthia was divided into two parts, Upper or Western Carinthia and Lower or Eastern.

1810s

  • 1813 - The Lower Carinthia is reconqured.

1830s

  • 1838 - First works, tracings on Slovene territory of a railway route Vienna - Trieste in a so called "South railway" (Južna železnica) begin.

1840s

  • 1845 - First works on the "South railway" between Celje and Ljubljana begin,
  • 1846 April 27- First locomotive of the "South railway" comes to Celje.
  • 1846 May 18 - Trial run of the first train on the "South railway" to Celje is performed.
  • 1846 June 2 - The "South railway" to Celje is open for public.
  • 1848 - The United Slovenia (Zedinjena Slovenija), the first Slovene political programme rises.
  • 1848 April 18 - The Ljubljana railway station is finished.
  • 1849 August 18 - First locomotive arrives to the Ljubljana railway station.
  • 1849 September 16- First train of the "South railway" comes to Ljubljana.
  • 1849 September 19 - "South railway" to Ljubljana is ceremoniously opened.
  • 1849 - The Duchy of Carinthia is created as a separate crownland.

1850s

  • 1850 May 14 - Emperor Francis Joseph lays a foundation stone of the Trieste railway station.
  • 1851 - Society of St. Hermagoras (Mohorjeva družba) first Slovene publisher is established in Klagenfurt (Celovec), which publishes books in Slovene.
  • 1857 July 18 - The "Carinthian railway" between Maribor and Klagenfurt is being bult.
  • 1857 July 27 - The "South railway" is finished and opened.

1860s

  • 1862 November 12 - The railway line of the "Carintnhian railway" on the route Maribor - Vuzenica is built.
  • 1863 - May 31 - The "Carinthian railway" is built
  • 1864 - The Kozler brothers establish the Pivovarna Union (The Union Brewery).
  • 1869 May 17 - Rally at Vižmarje near Ljubljana gathers around 30.000 people where programme of the United Slovenia is demanded.

1880s

  • 1889 July - Strike of coal miners of the Zasavje distrincts in Zagorje and Trbovlje.

1890s

  • 1890 May 1 - The Labour Day is celebrated first time.
  • 1890 - The railway line on the route Radgona - Ljutomer is built.
  • 1891 - The railway line on the route Ljubljana - Kamnik is built.
  • 1891 - The railway line on the route Celje - Velenje is built.
  • 1894 - First public power station in Škofja Loka is built.
  • 1894 - The railway line on the route Ljubljana - Novo Mesto is built.
  • 1895 - People's loan bank (Ljudska posojilnica) is founded by catholic middle class.
  • 1895 - Ljubljana is devastated by earthquake.
  • 1896 - The National hall (Narodni dom) is built in Celje.
  • 1898 - The railway line on the route Ljubljana - Kočevje is built.
  • 1899 - The railway line on the route Velenje - Dravograd is built.

1900s

  • 1900 - Liberal middle class founds the first Slovene bank, The Credit bank of Ljubljana (Ljubljanska kreditna banka).
  • 1902 - First telephone is mounted in Celje.
  • 1907 - Electricity is used in a lead mine in Mežica.
  • 1907 - The Celje hall (''Celjski dom'\') is built in Celje.
  • 1908 - The "Karavanke railway" is built.

1910s

  • 1912 - The Preporod (Rebirth), a juvenile movement is established. Many members have political connections with the pro-Serb organization the Young Bosnia (Mlada Bosna).
  • 1912-1915 - A hydroelectric station in Završnica (2500 kW) is being built.
  • 1913 April 12 - Ivan Cankar in Ljubljana gives a speech Slovenes and Yugoslavs for the socialist society Vzajemnost (Mutuality) about Slovenes to unite politicaly but not culturaly with other South Slavs and Yugoslavism.
  • 1913 - Celje is electrified. Westen's dishes factory uses electricity in industry.
  • 1914 - The railway on the route Novo Mesto - Karlovac begins to run.
  • 1914 June 28 - Austrian Archduke Franc Ferdinand a heir to the Austrian throne and his wife Countess Sophie are killed in Sarajevo, Bosnia at the hands of a pro-Serb nationalist assassin (a Bosnian Serb student Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Young Bosnia) -- World War I begins.
  • 1915-1918 - The Soča River front. In 11 Soča offensives Italians captured just Gorizia (Gorica) and a few frontier sites. On these battlefields many Slovenes in Austro-Hungarian army died (for example at Doberdob).
  • 1917 May 30 - May Declaration of Slovene, Croatian and Serb representatives in the Vienna parliament signed by Anton Korošec about arrangement of a unified common state of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs living within the Habsburg monarchy.
  • 1917 July 20 - The Corfu declaration is signed between the Yugoslav committee (Jugoslovanski odbor) and the Serb government and becomes the basis for the formation of Yugoslav state.
  • 1917 October 24 - November 9 - The Battle of Kobarid between Austrian forces, reinforced by German units and the Italian army. Italian army withdraws to the river Piave and only the military assistance of Britishers and Frenchmen saves them from a total break.
  • 1918 October 6 - National Council of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs is established in Zagreb. It becomes the political representative body of South Slavs in Austria-Hungary.
  • 1918 October 29 - National Council of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs breaks off all relations with Austria-Hungary and proclaims a short-lived State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Slovenia joins a new state with an independent State authority. The state is not recognized internationally.
  • 1918 November 1 - General Rudolf Maister takes over the authority of the Maribor garrison.
  • 1918 November 3 - Austria-Hungary surrenders.
  • 1918 November 18 - Germany surrenders. World War I ends.
  • 1918 December 1 - The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs joins with the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Montenegro to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SHS). Today it is believed that this was a great historical fault although at that time this was probably the only sensible decision because Italy according to the London Pact with victorius entente forces from 1915 without bias occupied Primorska, Istria (Istra) and Zadar in Dalmatia and Serbia was forcing for unification.
  • 1918 - Nitrogen factory (Tovarna dušika) in Ruše is built.
  • 1918 - A hydroelectric station Fala on the Drave river (31.150 kW) is built.
  • 1919 January 18 - The Paris Peace Conference begins. Woodrow Wilson gives his "14 Points" address. The 9th and the 10th are crucial for Slovenes within former Austro-Hungarian borders.
  • 1919 June 28 - The Treaty of Versailles is signed between Germany and victorious three Entente powers.
  • 1919 September 10 - The Treaty of Saint-Germain with republic of Austria. It confirms the break of Austria-Hungary. Its territory comes down to newly formed countries Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. South Tirol with mainly German population falls to Italy.
  • 1919 - The University of Ljubljana (Univerza v Ljubljani) is established.

1920s

  • 1920 June 4 - The Treaty of Trianon with Hungary. Gradiščansko falls to Austria and Transmuraland (Prekmurje) to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
  • 1920 July 13 - Croatian National hall in Pula and Slovene national hall in Trieste are burried by Italian fascists.
  • 1920 August 14 - A safety agreement is signed between Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
  • 1920 October 10 - The outwitted Carinthian Plebiscite, where Slovenia loses a larger part of Carinthia province.
  • 1920 November 12 - The Treaty of Rapallo between Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, where Slovenia again loses almost the whole province of Primorska, which is incorporated back again to the homeland after the 2nd World War. Italy also gets the whole Istria together with the Trieste region (Tržaško).
  • 1920 - The "Kulturbund" - a cultural and educational organization of German national minority is established. Later becomes the nazi organization, which operates in Yugoslavia as a fifth column.
  • 1921 June 28 - St. Vitus Day Constitution (Vidovdanska ustava) is adopted. It legalizes a monarchal regulation and centralism in a new state and also the supremacy of the court and the Serb politics linked with it.
  • 1921 July - An allied treaty for insurance of a situation in East Europe, attained in the Paris Peace Conference, is made by Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. This alliance supplements the safety agreement between Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and gets the name "Small entente".
  • 1922 - Julian March (Julijska krajina) is incorporated to Italy.
  • 1923 March - Prefect of Julian March interdicts Slovene and Croatian language at the administration.
  • 1925 October 15 - Italian king issues a decree, which interdicts Slovene and Croatian language also at courts of justice.
  • 1927 - Founding of the TIGR at Goriško, Slovene anti-fascist organisation, first such European organization and a secret youth organization Borba (The fight) at the Trieste region.
  • 1929 January 6 - The king Alexander I. with a coup d'état dissolves the parliament and establishes the January 6th Dictatorship. He abolishes the St. Vitus Day constitution, the freedom of the press and the pooling rights.
  • 1929 October 3 - The king Alexander I. renames the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. All political parties are prohibited.

1930s

  • 1930 - Italian fascists discover some TIGR's cells and five members of TIGR (other sources of Borba) are killed at Bazovica.
  • 1931 May 9 - To hide a dictatorship the king Alexander I. initiates the bestowal constitution, which introduces the two-chamber parliament.
  • 1933 February 16 - The "Small entente" between Romania, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.
  • 1934 February 9 - The "Balkan entente" between Romania, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey.
  • 1934 October 9- The king Alexander I. Karadžordžević, reigned since 1921, is assassinated in Marseille together with a French foreign minister Louis Barthou by the Croatian extremist nationalists.
  • 1935 - Prime minister becomes Milan Stojadinović. His government begins to drop a traditional leaning against France and starts to connect economically and politically with Germany and Italy.
  • 1937 - The National Academy of Sciences and Arts is established in Ljubljana.
  • 1938 March 13 - Adolf Hitler annexes Austria to the German Third Reich. Slovenes in Austrian Carinthia practically become German citizens.
  • 1938 - Some members of TIGR plan an attempt on Mussolini's life, when he visits Kobarid.
  • 1938 December - Prime minister becomes Dragiša Cvetković. He signs an agreement with the leader of Croatian opposition Vlatko Maček about the foundation of Croatian banovina as the sole autonomous political and territorial unit in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. This agreement does not solve the national problem since it just distributes the authority among Serbs and Croats.

1940s

  • 1941 April 6 - German, Italian and Hungarian occupying forces occupy Slovenia and divide it into three parts. One of the darkest times of the Slovene history begins.
  • 1941 April 11 - German army occupies the Zasavje districts, where important pits, heavy industry and traffic crossroads lie.
  • 1941 April 17 - Royal Yugoslav army signs its surrender in Belgrade.
  • 1941 April 19 - A Nazi politician and SS chief leader Heinrich Himmler visits Celje and among other he inspects the prison of the Stari pisker ("Old pot").
  • 1941 April 26 - An anti-fascist organization the Liberation Front of Slovene nation (Osvobodilna fronta Slovenskega ljudstva) (OF) is established in Ljubljana. It is active on a whole Slovene ethnical territory, as well in Carinthia, Primorska region in the Venetian province and Slovene Raba region (Slovene Slovensko Porabje, Hungarian Szlovén-vidék or Rába-vidék).
  • 1941 May 8 - A decision about the organization of the OF in the Zasavje districts in Trbovlje, Zagorje and Hrastnik is adopted.
  • 1941 July - Armed resistance begins.
  • 1941 August 1 - The first Slovene partisan's unit in the Zasavje distrincts, the Revirje company (Revirska četa) is established at the Čemšeniška Alpine meadow, counting 70 fighters.
  • 1941 December 12 - A battle between German policemen and Slovene partisans near the village of Rovte.
  • 1943 September 16 - The supreme plenum of OF proclaims the association of Slovene maritime province (Slovensko primorje) to Slovenia.
  • 1945 May 5 - First postwar Slovene national government is named and elected by the SNOS (Slovene National Liberation Council) at the Bratina Hall in Ajdovščina.
  • 1945 June 12 - Trieste stops being under the administration of Yugoslav army.
  • 1947 February 10 - 21 countries sign the Paris peace conference with Italy.
  • 1947 September 15 - Free Trieste territory (STO - Svobodno tržaško ozemlje) is established in Ljubljana.
  • 1948 March 18 - Soviet Union calls back all its specialists from Yugoslavia. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union accuses the Communist Party of Yugoslavia that it is not democratic, that it leans against imperial powers, that returns back to capitalism, and that it diverts from Marxism. The Informbiro begins. Economic blockade and a threat of military intervention follow.

1950s

1960s

1970s

  • 1978 - The "South railway" is electrified.

1980s

1990s

  • 1990 December 12 - The national referendum where 88.2 % of electorate utter for the independent and sovereign republic of Slovenia.
  • 1991 June 25 - Slovenia declares its independence from SFR Yugoslavia (SFRJ).
  • 1991 June 27 - Slovenia removes Yugoslav border signs and marks its own. Yugoslav national army (JNA) sends 2,000 soldiers from the baracks across Slovenia to occupy the border and the Ten Day war begins.
  • 1991 June 27-July 6 - Ten Day war. JNA takes over border posts, but most of the JNA soldiers are blocked in baracks, where they are denied water and electricity.
  • 1991 July 6 - Ten Day war ends. JNA is set to leave Slovenia in 3 months. Less than 100 people died in the clashes, mostly JNA soldiers (57), but important precedent is set for the wars in the rest of SFR Yugoslavia
  • 1991 October 25 - Last troops of JNA leave Slovenia.
  • 1991 December 23 - Independent Slovenia gets a new, democratic constitution.
  • 1992 January 15 - All members of the European Union (EU) recognize Slovenia as a state.
  • 1992 April 7 - The United States recognize Slovenia as a state.
  • 1992 May 22 - Slovenia becomes a member of the United Nations.
  • 1992 December 6 - 1st presidential elections. Milan Kučan becomes the president for the period 1992-1997 with 795012 votes (63,93 %) from 8 candidates.
  • 1993 May 14 - Slovenia is accepted to the Council of Europe.
  • 1997 November 23 - 2nd presidential elections. Milan Kučan again becomes the president for the period 1997-2002 with 595,877 votes (55.57%) from 8 candidates.
  • 1998 January 1 - Slovenia becomes a non-permanent member of UN Security Council.

2000s

  • 2004 May 1 - Expected date for the Slovenia's entrance to the EU.
  • May 2004 - Expected date for Slovenia's entrance to NATO.

See also:
Notes:
1 It clearly shows that 'exactly' 1246 ~ 3 × 400 Years have passed for this small nation to be somehow in a foreign Jewish-like Babylonian 'slavery' on a state's scale-view. But as Prešeren says: "No Devil, but the Neighbour shall be a Borderer".
2X See also Talk:Moravia and Subject page Moravia. (Temporary but interesting)
2Y Some modern sources imply that Veneti and Etruscans were highly connected and it is not known yet which nation influenced on each other. We can also freely say that Etruscans can be somehow the predecessors of the Slovenes. (More on this to come)
2Z The discovery of an expert Catalan archaeologist Pere Bosch-Gimpera.
3 See English translation of Charles C. Mierow: http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/%7Evandersp/Courses/texts/jordgeti.html

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