In physical geography, tundra is an area where tree growth is hindered by low temperatures, short growing seasons, and low precipitation. The term tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturia, which means treeless plain.

There are two types of tundra: arctic tundra and alpine tundra. In both of these types, the dominant vegetation is grasses, mosses, and lichens. Trees do not grow in the tundra. The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the timberline or treeline.

There are various types of habitat in a tundra, including:

Table of contents
1 Arctic tundra
2 Alpine tundra
3 External link

Arctic tundra

Arctic tundra occurs in the far Northern hemisphere, north of the taiga belt. Arctic tundra includes vast areas of northern Russia and Canada. The subsoil of arctic tundra is permafrost, which contains permanently frozen water. The arctic tundra is home to several peoples who are mostly nomadic reindeer herders, among them are the Saami.

Notable animals in the arctic tundra include:

Due to the harsh climate of the arctic tundra, regions of this kind has seen little exploitation even though they are rich in natural resources such as oil and uranium. In recent time this has begun to change, and in Russia and other parts of the world the tundra is being ever more subjected to human interference.

Alpine tundra

Alpine tundra occurs at high enough altitude at any latitude on Earth. Alpine tundra is also lacking in trees, but does not have permafrost.

Notable animals in the alpine tundra include:

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