Volleyball

Volleyball is a popular team sport, originating in the United States and now played around the world. It is particularly popular in East Asia, including China and Japan and in Brazil. The game is popular with both male and female participants.

Table of contents
1 Rules
2 History
3 External links

Rules

The game is played on indoor courts 18 metres long and 9 metres wide, divided into two 9x9 metre "team courts" by a one-metre wide net placed such that its highest point is 2.43 metres above the ground in men's competition, and 2.24 metres for women's competition (these heights are varied for veterans and junior competitions). There is a line 3 metres from and parallel to the net in each team court termed the "attack line". Each of the two teams consist of six players, three located in front of the attack line and three behind.

To get play started, a player from a team chosen by a coin toss throws the ball (a leather or synthetic leather ball about the size of a football but softer and lighter in consistency, inflated with compressed air) into the air and attempts to hit the ball so it passes over the net on a course such that it will land in the opposing team's court. The opposing team must use a combination of no more than three digs (placing the hands together with the arms stretched out in front, so that when the ball hits the arms it will fly hopefully in the air either back over the net or to a teammate), sets (tapping the ball in the desired direction simultaneously with both hands above the head), or spikes (jumping, raising one arm above the head and punching the ball so it will move quickly down to the ground on the opponent's court) to return the ball over the net (it may touch the top of the net on the way back) from where it came. The game continues in this manner until an error is made:

  • if the ball lands out of court or in the same court as the team that touched it last
  • the ball is touched more than three times before being returned to the other team's court
  • the same player touches the ball twice in succession*
  • the players of one team do not manage to touch the ball before the ball lands in their half of the court
  • a back-row player spikes the ball, unless he or she jumped from behind the attack line (the player is allowed to land in front of the attack line)
* Except if a player blocks (touches a ball sent over the net by the opposing team, while at the net) a ball that stays in the blocker's side of the net. In such an instance the blocker may play the ball another time without violating the rule against playing the ball twice in succession. Also, such a block does not count against the three allowed touches.

When an error is made, the team that did not make the error is awarded a point. The team that won the point is awarded the right to serve for the next point. The game continues, with the first team to score 25 points (and be two points ahead) awarded the set. Matches are played over best of five sets. Previously, points could only be scored when a team had the service; sets only went up to 15 points. This rule was changed in the late 1990s to increase the attractiveness of the game.

Generally, tall players with the ability to jump high are selected to play in the attack court, where they attempt to block or spike opponents initial hits and return the ball at high speed on steep trajectories so that the ball lands before the other team has time to react. If the opponent's hit does not allow this, teams will then try to use the "dig" stroke to put the ball sraight up in the air, then have a team member set the ball on a looping trajectory to a player at the front of the team court, who will then spike the ball as described.

Until recently, it was a foul if the ball contacted any part of the body below the waist. However, modern rules allow any part of the body to hit the ball, including the legs. Kick volleyball, where the ball is primarily contacted with the feet, is a popular variant, particular in South American countries.

Beach volleyball

A new variation of the game, beach volleyball, has evolved from the popular social games of volleyball played on many beaches around the world. This version, rather than played on indoor hard courts, is played on sand courts which may either be formed naturally or built specifically for the purpose. Instead of a team of six, each team consists of only two players, but otherwise the rules are identical.

One of the facets of beach volleyball is the use of hand signals by players to indicate to their partner what sort of play they intend to make. These signals are made behind the back, to avoid the opposition seeing the signals. Combined with the standard attire of female competitors, these pictures proved irresistible to editors of tabloid newspapers.

It started in Santa Monica, California in the 1920s. A decade later, beach volleyball began to appear in Europe. By the 1940s, two man tournaments were being played on the beaches of Santa Monica for trophies. In the 1960s, an attempt to start a professional volleyball league was made in Santa Monica. It failed, but a professional tournament was held in France for 30,000 French Francs. In the 1970s, a few professional tournaments in Santa Monica were sponsored by beer and cigarette companies. Most of the players representing the United States in the indoor Olympic Games were coming from the beaches of Southern California. The best players had to decide whether to play in professional tournaments, or to restrict themselves to amateur tournaments, so they could be eligible for the Olympic Games. In 1996, beach volleyball became a separate Olympic sport.

History

Volleyball was invented on February 9, 1895 by William G. Morgan at a YMCA in Holyoke, Massachusetts, United States.

An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), was founded in 1947, and World Championships were instuted in 1952. Volleyball was added to the program of the Olympic Games in 1964, and has been part ever since.

External links




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